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Glossary

ACSSuT: An antimicrobial resistance pattern of a bacterium resistant to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Sulfamethoxazole, and Tetracycline

Aminoglycosides: Group of antimicrobial agents that work on the 30S subunit of the ribosome in aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma

Antibiogram: A chart listing pathogens and their susceptibility based on laboratory testing to an array of antimicrobials.

Antibiotics: A substance produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits other microorganisms

Antimicrobial Agents: Any substance of natural, semi-synthetic, or synthetic origin that kills or inhibits the growth of a microorganism but causes little or no damage to the host

Antimicrobial Resistance: Ability of bacteria to evade and survive under exposure to an antimicrobial agent

Bactericidal: Antimicrobial agent that kills the bacteria at or near the same drug concentration that inhibits growth

Bacteriostatic: Antimicrobial agent that has a large drug concentration difference between inhibiting growth and killing bacteria

Beta Lactams: A group of antimicrobial agents that work on the cell wall of gram positive and some gram-negative bacteria

Breakpoint: Level of an antimicrobial agent in a patient at which bacterial growth is inhibited and a clinical cure is likely

Cmax: The highest attainable concentration of a drug in the plasma

Disc Diffusion: A method of susceptibility testing where disc impregnated with an antibiotic are placed onto a culture plate where a specific concentration of a bacteria is evenly spread over the whole plate, this is a qualitative measurement for susceptibility testing

Disease Prevention: Antimicrobial agent administered at a low dose for an extended duration to decrease an animal’s chance of becoming ill

Dose Interval: Frequency at which a drug is given

Empiric Therapy: Drug selection based on experience and relevant clinical observational information, without the aid of laboratory tests.

E-Test: A method of susceptibility testing where a predefined exponential gradient of an antimicrobial agent strip is placed on a culture plate where a specific concentration of a bacteria has a confluent spread over the whole plate, this is a quantitative measurement for susceptibility testing

Extralabel Drug Use: Use of a drug for other then what is on the manufacturer’s label, (ie. dosage, disease) but following guidelines set forth by Food and Drug Administration - valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship, no alternative drugs, identification of treated animal(s), and extended drug withdrawal time.

Fluoroquinolones: A group of antimicrobial agents that disrupt the DNA of gram-positive and negative bacteria

Gram Negative Bacteria: Bacteria that are decolorized and stained by the counter stain (carbol fuchsin or safranin) to give a red color appearance

Gram Positive Bacteria: Bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain giving a purple-blue color

Growth Promotion: Antimicrobial agent administered at a low dose for an extended duration to promote growth and feed efficiency

Human Analogs: Antimicrobial agent that is used in veterinary medicine which is also used in human medicine

Lincosamides: A group of antimicrobial agents that work on the 50S subunit of the ribosome in gram-positive bacteria

Macrolides: A group of antimicrobial agents that work on the 50S subunit of the ribosome in gram-positive bacteria

Metaphylactic: Administration of an antimicrobial agent to clinically healthy animals at a herd/flock level following situations that may increase susceptibility to an infection.

Micro-broth Dilution: A method of susceptibility testing where two-fold dilutions of an antimicrobial agent are made in a series of wells in a 96 well plate that are inoculated with a specific concentration of a bacteria, this is a quantitative measurement for susceptibility testing

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration: The minimum level of an antimicrobial agent needed to stop the growth of bacteria

Multi-Drug Resistance(MDR): A bacterial pathogen that is resistant to 2 or more antimicrobial agents

Over-the-Counter: Ability to purchase an antimicrobial agent without a prescription from a doctor

Peak Dependent Drugs: Antimicrobial agents where clinical effectiveness is determined by how high the plasma concentration peak is above the minimum inhibitory concentration

Pharmacodynamics: The properties of an antimicrobial agent that include -concentration and time at site of infection, in the tissue, and body fluids, toxicological effects, and antimicrobial effect at site of infection

Pharmacokinetics: The properties and chemical nature that determine an antimicrobial agents frequency of dosing; absorption, distribution, and elimination

Prophylactic: Administration of an antimicrobial agent to healthy animal(s) with the onset of disease in other herd/flock mates

Prudent Use of Antimicrobials: Usage of an antimicrobial agent, which maximizes therapeutic effects and minimizes the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis: A method used to separate and analyze DNA via electrophoresis with alternating electrode fields in multiple directions allowing for larger DNA sequences

Sub-Therapeutic: Administration of an antimicrobial agent at a low level for an extended duration

Sulfonamides: A group of antimicrobial agents that are broad spectrum and work by interfering with folic acid synthesis

Susceptibility Testing: An in vitro laboratory method to measure a bacterial pathogens susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents

Systemic Availability: Fraction of a drug that reaches the blood unchanged

Tetracyclines: A group of antimicrobial agents that work on the 30S subunit of the ribosome in gram-positive and negative bacteria

Therapeutic: Administration of an antimicrobial agent in a curative dose for an adequate period of time to combat an established infection

Time Dependent Drugs: Antimicrobial agents most effective by maintaining plasma concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a period of time

Volume of Distribution: A comparison of drug concentration in the body versus plasma

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