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Salmonella

Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that cause illness in humans and animals. Over 2700 serotypes of Salmonella exist. The four most common serotypes causing infections in humans are Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Newport.

Salmonellosis in Humans

Clinical signs and symptoms usually occur within 8 to 72 hours after becoming infected (usually by ingestion): diarrhea (often bloody), fever, and abdominal cramps. Serious invasive illness may occur.

Illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days.

Most recover with supportive treatment; however, some develop severe infections, and a few have chronic sequelae.

Antimicrobial agents may be life-saving. Hospitalization is common.

Drugs commonly used for empiric treatment:

Children: third generation cephalosporins (e.g., ceftriaxone)

Adults: fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin)

People at high risk for serious infections: elderly, infants, immune-compromised and patients taking antibiotics for treatment of other illnesses.