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Test Methods in Detecting Antimicrobial Resistance

There are several antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods available today, and each one has their respective advantages and disadvantages. They all have one and the same goal, which is to provide a reliable prediction of whether an infection caused by  a bacterial isolate will respond therapeutically to a particular antibiotict reatment. This data may be utilized as guidelines for chemotherapy, or at the population level as indicators of emergence and spread of resistance based on passive or active surveillance.  Some examples of antibiotic sensitivity tesing methods are:
   

  • Dilution method (broth and agar dilution method)
  • Disk-diffusion method
  • E-test
  • Automated methods
  • Mechanism-specific tests such as beta-lactamase detection test and chromogenic cephalosporin test
  • Genotypic methods such as PCR and DNA hybridization methods


Selection of  the appropriate method will depend on the intended degree of accuracy, convenience, urgency, availability of resources, availability of technical expertise and cost..    Interpretation should be based on veterinary standards whenever possible, rather than on human medical standards, which may not always be applicable.   Among these available tests, the two most commonly used methods in veterinary laboratories are the agar disk-diffusion method and the broth microdilution method.  

 

 

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Organizations Publishing

AST STANDARDS28

 

United States: Clinical and Laboratory Standards institute (CLSI; formerly NCCLS)

www.clsi.org

 

European Union: European Committee of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)

www.eucast.org

 

European Union: Office International des Èpizooties (OIE)

www.oie.int

 

United Kingdom: British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

www.bsac.org.uk

 

Germany: Deutsches Institut für Normung

www.beuth.de  

 

France: Société Française de Microbiologie

www.sfm.assoc.fr

 

Sweden: Swedish Reference Group for antibiotics

www.srga.org

 

Australia: CDS disk diffusion method

www.med.unsw.edu.au/pathology-cds