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Unlike in humans, an even larger proportion of antibiotics produced for veterinary use are utilized in animal herds or flocks for purposes other than treatment.   A report by the Union of Concerned Scientists estimated that in the United States alone, the livestock producers use about 24.6 million pounds of antimicrobials for non-therapeutic purposes, a volume about eight times greater than the 3 million pounds estimated use for human medicine (Mellon et al., 2001).