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Fluroquinolones

 

Mode of action:

 

Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis.  Fluoroquinolones have been shown to bind to the DNA gyrase-DNA complex and interrupt a process that leads to the negative supercoiling of bacterial DNA. This disruption leads to defects in the necessary supercoiling, and render the bacteria unable to multiply and survive.

 

Example:

Enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, Danofloxacin, Difloxacin, Ibafloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Pradofloxacin, Orbifloxacin

 

Source:

Synthetic

Spectrum of activity:

Broad spectrum – 3rd generation fluoroquinolones

Narrow spectrum – other fluoroquinolones

 

Effect on bacteria:

Bactericidal

 

Examples of applications in Veterinary Medicine:

  • Ruminants – acute respiratory disease, infections with E. coli, Salmonella, Mycoplasma, mastitis, metritis, conjunctivitis
  • Swine – treatment of infections caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pasteurella multocida.Should never be administered in feeds because residues can contaminate the environment; prohibited for use in pigs in some countries.
  • Horses – for infections with bacteria resistant to the first drug of choice; not recommended in young growing horses (may cause cartilage erosion)
  • Dogs and Cats – prostatitis, mastitis, rhinitis, pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue infections; not recommended for use in animals <8 months of age (or <18 months of age for large breed of dogs to avoid arthropathoc effects.

 

Miscellaneous:

 

Available formulations and/or approved use in different animal species vary widely between countries; sometimes used extra-labelly, but may be prohibited in some countries.

 

 

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