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Tetracyclines

 

Mode of action:

 

Inhibition of protein synthesis.  Once tetracyclines have been transported into the cell, this class of antibiotic reversibly binds to receptors on the 30S ribosomal subunit of the bacteria, preventing attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the RNA-ribosome complex.  This prevents the addition of amino acids to the elongating peptide chain, preventing synthesis of proteins. 

 

Example:

Chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, demethylchlortetracycline, rolitetracycline, limecycline, clomocycline, methacycline, doxycycline, minocycline

 

Source:

Streptomyces spp.; some are also semi-synthetic

 

Spectrum of activity:

Broad spectrum. Exhibits activity against a wide range of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, atypical organisms such as chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and protozoan parasites. 

 

Effect on bacteria:

Bacteriostatic

 

Examples of applications in Veterinary Medicine:

Tetracyclines are primarily indicated in the treatment of borreliosis, brucellosis (usually in combination with rifampin or streptomycin), chlamydiosis, ehrlichiosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, rickettsiosis, and tularemia. 

 

Miscellaneous:

 

Tetracyclines have also been used for non-antibacterial purposes, having shown properties such as anti-inflammatory activity, immunosuppresion, inhibition of lipase and collagenase activity, and wound healing. 

 

 

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