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3. Calf Management

Currently, all calves receive a bottle of colostrum at birth for at least one feeding and then are placed on milk replacer which contains antibiotics.  Multiple feedings of colostrum are not consistently provided to calves.  There is no testing of colostrum to ensure that it is of adequate quality, and no testing of sera from the calves to validate adequate colostrum intake by the calves.  Calves are tied to a wall or pen in the barn and receive ad-libitum grain, with a coccidiostat added by the manufacturer.  Calves are not given milk or milk replacement products after approximately 60 days of age, at which time the calves are placed in group housing. 



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