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4. Classes and types of antimicrobials used in small animal practice.

companion04.jpgDon says, Which types of antimicrobials are used most frequently?


Sue says, The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial class are beta-lactams (1-8) accounting for 67% of prescriptions in dogs and cats in a recent study (2). beta-lactam antimicrobials include penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and cephalexin; antimicrobials which are familiar to most people. Interestingly, many of the antimicrobials prescribed to small animals are identical to those prescribed for human infections.


Don says, I had wondered about that. My dog was prescribed cephalexin for a bladder infection, as was my daughter for an ear infection.


Sue says, That is not unexpected since recently cephalexin was described as the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial in dogs, but it was rarely used in cats(2).

 

Table 1 The most frequentlya prescribed antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes to dogs and cats.

Dogs

Frequency of Prescriptions

 

 

Cats

Frequency of Prescriptions

Cephalexin

33%

 

 

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

40%

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

16%

 

 

Cefovecin

17%

Metronidazole

16%

 

 

Fluoroquinolones

12%

Fluoroquinolones

7%

 

 

Clindamycin

7%

 Source: Murphy, 2010
*All other antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes were prescribed at frequency of 5% or less.

 

Table 2 The most frequentlya prescribed antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes to dogs and cats for diseases associated with the skin and urinary system.

Antimicrobial

Skin

Urinary System

Dog

Cat

Dog

Cat

Amoxicillin

4%

6%

25%

7%

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

14%

67%

38%

55%

Cefovecin

6%

22%

6%

10%

Cephalexin

67%

0

13%

0

Fluoroquinolones

4%

6%

19%

27%

 Source: Murphy, 2010

*All other antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes were prescribed at a frequency of less than 3% unless otherwise noted.

 

 

Table 3 The most frequentlya prescribed antimicrobials to dogs and cats for diseases associated with the gastrointestinal system.

Antimicrobial

Dogs

Cats

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

0

12%

Metronidazole

71%

50%

Tylosin

13%

 

Source: Murphy, 2010
*All other antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes were prescribed at a frequency of less than 10% unless otherwise noted.

 

Table 4 The most frequentlya prescribed antimicrobials to dogs and cats for diseases associated with the respiratory system.

Antimicrobial

Dogs

Cats

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid

18%

37%

Cefovecin

4%

11%

Chloramphenicol

14%

0

Doxycycline

11%

11%

Fluoroquinolones

15%

20%

Source: Murphy, 2010
*All other antimicrobials or antimicrobial classes were prescribed at a frequency of less than 10% unless otherwise noted.

 

 

 

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