D. Increased human healthcare costs
Increased healthcare costs are another important consequence of antimicrobial resistance. Increased costs are due to the need for additional antibiotic treatments, longer hospitalization, more diagnostic tests, higher professional costs and more pain management. In 1998, the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria at US$ .4 to 5 million per year19. With the increase in incidence and prevalence of AMR in the last few years, the current cost is probably much higher. Again, increased health costs have more profound repercussions in poorer countries where resources are more limited and the lost efficacy of the older, lower-cost antibiotics has a greater impact on human morbidity and mortality.