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References and Resources

1  World Health Organization Study Group. 2002. Future trends in veterinary public health. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser  907:1-85.

2 Bogaard AEVD and Stobberingh EE. 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics: Links between animals and humans. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 14:237-335).

3 Aarestrup FM, Wegener HC and Collignon P. 2008. Resistance in Bacteria of the food chain epidemiology and control strategies. Expert Rev. Anti. Infect. Ther. 6(5), 733-750.

4 GAO 2004. Antibiotic resistance: Federal agencies need to better focus efforts to address risk to humans from antibiotic use in animals. Report to US GAO: Report to congressional requested [] Accessed January, 2009.

5 Molbak K, Gerner-Smidt P, and Wagener HC. 2002. Increasing Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(5):514-515.

6 Gupta A, Nelson JM, Barrett TJ, Tauze RV, Rossiter Sp, Friedman CR, Joyce KW, Smith KE, Jones TF, Hawkins MA, Shiferaw B, Beebe JL, Vugia DJ, Rabatsky T, Benson JA, Root TP and Angulo FJ. 2004. Antimicrobial Resistance among Campylobacter Strains, United States, 1997-2001.  Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10(6):1102-1109.

7 Angulo FJ, Nunnery JA and Bair HD. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic enteric pathogens.  Rev. Sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz.  23(2):485-496.

8 Cohen ML. 1992. Epidemiology of Drug Resistance: Implications for a Post-Antimicrobial Era. Science 257:1050-155.

9 GAO.  1999. Food Safety:The Agricultural Use of Antibiotics and its Implications for Human Health. General Accounting Office: Report tot the Honorable Tom Harkin, Ranking Minority Member , Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, Forestry, U.S. Senate. GAO/RCED-99-74.

10 Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM and Tauze R. 1999. Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5(5):607-625.

11 FDA.  News: FDA announces final decision about veterinary medicine. [Accessed online: February 23, 2009]

12 Holmberg SD, Wells JG and Cohen ML. 1984. Animal-to-Man Transmission of Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella: Investigation of U.S. Outbreaks, 1971-1983. Science. 225(4664):833-835.

13 Helms M, Vastrup P, Gerner-Smidt P, and Molbak K. 2002. Excess Mortality Associated with Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8(5):490-495.

14 McDonald LC, Rossiter S, Mackinson C, Wang YY, Johnson S, Sullivan M, Sokolow R, DeBess E, Gilbert L, Benson JA, Hill B and Angulo FJ.  2001. Quinupristin-Dalfopristin – resistant Enterococcus faecium  on chicken and in human stool specimens.  New England Journal of Medicine. 345(16):1155-60.

15 Wegener HC, Aarestrup FM, Jensen LB, Hammerum AM and Bager F.  1999. Use of Antimicrobial Growth Promoters in Food Animals and Enterococcus faecium Resistance to Therapeutic Antimicrobial Drugs in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5(3):329-335.

16 Lu K, Asano R, Davies J. 2004. Antimicrobial Resistance Gene delivery in Animal Feeds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10(4):679-683.

17 Wegener HC. 2003. Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development. Current Opinion in Microbiology.6:439-445.

18 Ross CB, Duke SE, Ziprin RL, Harvey RB, Hume ME, Poole TL, Scott EHM, Highfield LD, Alali WQ, Andrews K, Anderson RC and Nisbet DJ. 2008.  Antibiotic and Disinfectant Susceptibility Profiles of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) Isolated from Community Waste water in Texas.  Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 80:188–194

19 McGowan Jr. JE. 2001. Economic Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 7(2):286-292.

20 Sorensen TL, Blom M, Monnet DL, Frimoot-Moller N, Poulsen RL and Espersen F. 2001. Transient Intestinal carriage After Ingestion of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococcus faecium from Chicken and Pork. New England Journal of Medicine. 345(16):1161-6.

21 Cole D, Todd L and Wing S. 2000. Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives. 108(8): 685-699.

22 Hendriksen SWM, Orsel K, Wagenaar JA, Miko A and van Duijkeren E. 2004. Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10(12):2225-2227.

23 Lee JH. 2003. Methicillin(Oxacillin)-resistantStaphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Major Food Animals and Their Potential Transmission to Humans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(11):6489-6494.

24 Wulf MWH, Sorum M, van Nes A, Skov R, Melchers WJG, Klaassen CHW and Voss A. 2007. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among veterinarians: an international study. Clinical Microbiology of Infectious Diseases. 14:29-34.

25  Anderson MEC, Lefebvre SL, Weese JS. 2008. Evaluation of prevalence and Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in veterinary personnel attending an international equine veterinary conference. Veterinary Microbiology 129:410-417.

26 Wulf M, Nes AV, Eikelenboom-Boskamp A, de Vries J, Melchers W, Klaassen C and Voss A. 2006. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Veterinary Doctors and Students, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious diseases. 12(12):1939-1941.

27 Khanna T, Friendship R, Dewey C, Weese J. 2008.  Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers. Veterinary Microbiology. 128:298-303.

28 van Loo I, Huijsdens X, Tiemersma E, de Neeling A, van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Beaujean D, Voss A and Kluytmans J. 2007. Emergence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus of Animal Origin in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13(12):1834-1839.

29 Smith DL, Harris AD, Johnson JA, Silbergeld EK and Morris Jr. G. 2002. Animal antibiotic use has an early but important impact on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in human commensal bacteria. PNAS. 99(9):6434-6439.

30 Kelly BG, Vespermann A, Bolton DJ. Gene transfer events and their occurrence in selected environments.  Food and Chemical Toxicology. Article in Press

31 Douce-Populaire F, Triu-Cuot P, Dosbaa I, Andermont A, Courvalin P. 1991. Inducible transfer of conjugative transposon Tn 1545 from Enterococcus faecalis to Listeria monocytogenes in the digestive tracts of gnotobiotic mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 36:502-504.

32  Balis E, Vatopoulos AC, Kanelopoulou M, Mainas E, Hatzoudis G,  Kontogianni V, Malamou-Lada H, Kitsou-Kiriakopoulou S, Kalapothaki  V. 1996 Indications of in vivo transfer of an epidemic R plasmid from Salmonella enteritidis to Escherichia coli of the normal human gut flora. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  (4):977-9 88.

33  Kemper N. 2008. Veterinary aantibiotics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Ecological Indicators: 1-13.

34 Rooklidge SJ. 2004. Environmental antimicrobial contamination from terracumulation and diffuse pollution pathways. Sci. Total Environ. 325:1-13.

35 Kay P, Blackwell PA, Boxall, ABA. 2004. Fate of veterinary antibiotics in a macroporous tile drained clay soil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:1136–1144.

36 Aust MO, Godlinski F, Travis GR, Hao X, McAllister TA, Leinweber P, Thiele-Bruhn S.  2008.  Distribution of sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle.  Environmental Pollution.  156:1243-1251.

37 Sarmah Ak, Meyer MT, Boxall ABA. 2006. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (Vas) in the environment. Chemosphere. 65:725-759.

38 Sengelov G, Agerso Y, Hallig-Sorensen B, Baloda SB, Anderson JS and Jensen LB. 2003.  Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Danish Farmland as a Result of treatment with pig manure slurry. Environ. Int. 28:587-595.

39 Serrano PH. 2005. Responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries technical Paper 469. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

40 Kummerer K. 2002. Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sources – a review.  Chemosphere. 45:957-969.

41 Martinez JL. 2008. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. Science. 321:365-367.

42 Brian PW. 1957.  Effects of antibiotics on plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 8:413-426.

43  Wollenberger L Halling-Sorensen B, Kusk KO. 2000. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna. Chemosphere. 40:723-730.

44 Migliore L, Civitareale C, Gianfranco B and Di Deupis GD. 1997. Toxicity of several important agricultural antibiotics to Artemia.  Water Research 31(7):1801-1806.

45 Smith kr, Clayton P, Stuart B, Myers K and Seng PM. 2005 The vital role of science in global policy decision-making: An analysis of past, current, and forecasted trends and issues in global red meat trade and policy. Meat Science. 71:150-157.

46 FAO, 2002. World Livestock Trade. Spotlight.  Accessed online January, 2009 []

47 Aarestup E ed. 2006. Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. ASM Press, Washington DC. 442 pp.

48 Stege H, Bager F, Jacobsen E and Thougaard A. 2003. VETSTAT – the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 57:103-115.

49 Hammerum AM, Heuer OE, Emborg HD, Bagger-Skjøt L, Jensen VF, Rogues AM, Skov RL, Agersø Y, Brandt CT, Seyfarth A, Muller A, Hovgaard K, Ajufo J, Bager F. Aarestrup FM, Frimodt-Møller N, Wegener HC,and Monnet DL. 2007. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13(11):1632-1639.

50  DANMAP. 2005. Use of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, foods and humans in Denmark. [Accessed Online, February 20, 2009]

Mellon M, Benbrook C and Benbrook KL. 2001. Hogging it: Estimates of Antimicrobial Abuse in Livestock. Union of Concerned Scientists. [Accessed online, June, 2008]

52 WHO. 2001. Antibiotic resistance: synthesis of recommendations by expert policy groups. WHO/CDS/CSR/DRS/2001.10 [Accessed online, November, 2008].

53 Davies, J. 1994. Inactivation of antibiotics and the dissemination of resistance genes. Science, 264 (5157): 375-381.

54 Food and Drug Administration: 2009 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. Center for Veterinary Medicine, Dood and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Health Service (




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